Pneumonia is an acute respiratory infection affecting one or both lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. It is a serious infection that affects the alveoli the air sacs in the lungs. The alveoli get filled with pus and other liquid due to infection causing discomfort and difficulty in breathing. Lobar pneumonia is a type of infection that affects one or more sections (lobes) of the lungs. Bronchial pneumonia (also known as bronchopneumonia) is an infection that affects patches throughout both lungs.
As per the theme for World Pneumonia Day 2022, Anyone can get pneumonia, However, Adults aged 65 or older and Children younger than age 2 years fall under higher risk to the disease condition. It is also observed that People with certain medical conditions, People that smoke and people living in high pollution area also tend to fall in high risk for pneumonia
Air pollution has been responsible for certain respiratory diseases like asthma. However, it has also impaired the function of pulmonary alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells and increased the risk for pneumonia. Some of the experts have hypothesized that long-term (1–2 years) exposure to air pollution would increase older adults' risk for hospitalization with pneumonia. India ranks 5th among countries to have the worst AQI (Air quality index) in the world.
The symptoms of bacterial pneumonia include bluish colour to lips and fingernails, confused mental state or delirium, especially in older people, cough that produces green, yellow, or bloody mucus, fever, heavy sweating, loss of appetite, low energy and extreme tiredness, rapid breathing, rapid pulse, chills, sharp or stabbing chest pain that’s worse with deep breathing or coughing, shortness of breath that gets worse with activity. Early symptoms of viral pneumonia are the same as those of bacterial pneumonia, which may include headache, increasing shortness of breath, muscle pain, weakness, worsening of the cough while mycoplasma pneumonia has somewhat different symptoms, which include a severe cough that may produce mucus. Most people with pneumonia respond well to treatment, but pneumonia can be very serious and even deadly if not treated in time. Delay in treatment for the Patients with low immune response may result into infections like acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), Lung abscesses, Respiratory failure, or Sepsis
It was observed that 2.5 million, including 672,000 children claimed their lives in 2019 alone due to Pneumonia. The combined effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, Addictions, climate changes and conflict are fuelling a pneumonia crisis across the life course placing millions more at risk of infection and death. In 2021, the estimated burden of deaths from respiratory infections, including COVID-19, is a massive 6 million.
It is very important that every person in the country is aware about the preventive measures of pneumonia, its complications and treatment. The ever increasing pollution in the country might worsen the cases of pneumonia and decrease the chances of recovery. It is time government should introduce certain preventive measures and spread awareness among people regarding pneumonia.